Older woman standing in a park pressing her hands against her abdomen. Her tension is obvious from the way her arms are positioned.

Kidneys and urinary tract

The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, urethra, ureter, and bladder. This organ system is responsible for creating and excreting urine. Urinary system disorders range from generally harmless bladder infections to serious diseases such as renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer) or chronic kidney failure.

Kidney stones and ureteral stones

Kidney stones form as small, solid deposits in the renal pelvis. They often occur in people aged between 40 and 60. Larger stones can cause pain.


Bedwetting in children is more common than people realize and usually goes away on its own. As long as it lasts, there are several ways to improve the situation.

Cystitis (urinary tract infection)

Women are most likely to get urinary tract infections. Cystitis is caused by bacteria and can usually be treated effectively. A burning pain when passing urine is typical.

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease typically develops in older people. The condition often goes unnoticed because a decrease in renal function does not initially cause any symptoms.

Bladder cancer

In Germany, almost 31,000 people are newly diagnosed with bladder cancer every year. The treatment given and how the disease develops vary depending on how far the cancer has spread.

Kidney cancer

Kidney cancer is one of the less common types of cancer. Around 15,000 people get kidney cancer every year in Germany.

Acute kidney injury

With acute kidney injury, the kidneys either have limited function or lose function entirely. There are many possible reasons for this.

EHEC infections

Most infections with the EHEC bacteria come from contaminated food or traces of animal feces. EHEC can cause watery and bloody diarrhea and in some cases acute kidney failure.

Overactive parathyroid glands

Overactive parathyroid glands can cause bone degradation, kidney stones and cognitive impairments. This hormone disorder can often be cured with surgery.


Acidosis is a condition in which the body’s pH balance is disrupted. As a result, the pH value of the blood drops and becomes “acidic”. This acidity is usually due to an underlying illness.

Vaginal prolapse and uterine prolapse

Women may experience weakening of the connective tissue in the pelvic floor for a variety of reasons. As a result, the uterus, urinary bladder, or rectum can sag.


Rhabdomyolysis is a breakdown of muscle fibers that can be triggered by several causes. Severe cases need to be treated quickly.

Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus causes excessive urination and increased thirst. It is caused by a hormone that is missing or ineffective.

Prostate stones

Prostate stones are common in men from middle-age onwards, but they are usually harmless. If they cause pain or problems when urinating, they can be treated.

Hantavirus infections

Hantaviruses cause a flu-like illness with fever. It often also affects the kidneys. Rodents such as rats and mice and their droppings are carriers of the virus.