EEG monitor showing an image of a cranial scan with neural pathways. A man is sitting on a doctor’s chair in the background. His head is leaning back gently on the backrest and he appears to have his eyes closed.

Head and nervous system

The human nervous system consists of countless nerve cells and performs many tasks such as control tasks within the body and communication tasks for contact with the outside world. Organic nervous system disorders fall within the field of neurology. These can also include types of headache such as migraines.

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most commonly occurring neurological disease in young adults. At present, there is no cure for MS. However, various treatments help to slow its progression.

Migraine

During a migraine attack, severe headaches occur on one side of the head only. This pain may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea and vomiting.

Stroke

During a stroke some of the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. This can be life threatening. To prevent serious consequences, rapid treatment is imperative.

Generalized anxiety disorder

It is normal to experience fear at times. Fear puts us in a state of readiness so that we can react quickly. However, persistent worry could be an indication of generalized anxiety disorder.

Sleep disorders (insomnia)

People with sleep disorders are often tired and exhausted because they have not had enough restful sleep. Up to one third of people experience problems falling asleep or getting a good night’s sleep.

Trigeminal neuralgia

People with trigeminal neuralgia experience severe facial pain, especially in the cheeks and jaw. Read on to find out what causes this condition and what can be done about it.

Depression

People with depression have sad and negative thoughts for weeks, withdraw from family and friends. Depression determines the way they act and think. Daily life, work, and studying become difficult.

Concussion in adults

A concussion often occurs as a result of an accident. It is the mildest form of traumatic brain injury. Read on to find out more about the symptoms and treatment options.

Shingles

Shingles (herpes zoster) is a painful viral skin condition. The viruses attack nerves and cause an inflammation that spreads over the skin.

Schizophrenia

The symptoms of schizophrenia occur in phases or episodes, in which those affected may have delusions, hear voices or feel that they are being watched, for example.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infection transmitted ticks.

Alzheimer’s disease

People with Alzheimer’s disease suffer a considerable loss of memory and cognitive functioning. The disease cannot be cured. However, treatment can have a positive effect on its progression.

Rabies

Rabies is a zoonotic disease, i.e. a disease transmitted from animals to humans. It is usually caused by lyssaviruses, a family of viruses that includes the classic rabies virus.

Brain tumors

There are different types of brain tumor. Learn more about the different types, their treatment options and risk factors known of to date.

Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease affects the nervous system and increasingly restricts mobility.

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome refers to severe fatigue that does not improve despite rest. There is no specific cure, but various measures that can help.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

With ALS, nerve cells that control muscles deteriorate and die. This results in muscle loss, muscle stiffness and paralysis. Treatment seeks to relieve symptoms as effectively as possible.

Cluster headaches

Cluster headaches come in phases, or “clusters”. They involve severe pain, always on one side only and mostly around the temples or eyes.

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder in which the brain’s ability to process pain is disrupted. The measures that help with fibromyalgia differ greatly from person to person.

Tension headaches

Nagging, pressing headaches that occur now and then are called tension headaches. They can be relieved with non-prescription painkillers.

Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)

Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. It can have several causes, the most frequent being viruses.

Meningitis

Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges. This can have multiple causes. If triggered by bacteria, meningitis can quickly become life-threatening.

Polyneuropathy

Conditions in which several nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord are damaged are referred to as polyneuropathy. There are many different causes and symptoms.

Brain aneurysm

A brain aneurysm is a bulge in an artery in the brain. This often goes unnoticed without causing symptoms. If the aneurysm ruptures, it may cause a life-threatening brain hemorrhage.

Autism

Autism spectrum disorders are developmental disorders with specific characteristics: people with autism have problems communicating with others and with social competence.

Diabetic neuropathy

With diabetic neuropathy, nerve damage occurs due to permanently elevated blood glucose levels. Pain and numbness in the arms and legs are typical symptoms.

Vitamin B deficiency

Vitamin B is a group of eight vitamins, the most important of which are B1, B6, B9 (folate) and B12. Eating a balanced diet prevents a deficiency in these vitamins.

Polio (poliomyelitis)

Polio (poliomyelitis) can cause permanent paralysis. Polio viruses have been almost eradicated thanks to large-scale vaccination campaigns. Unvaccinated children and adults can contract polio.

Restless Legs Syndrome

People with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) feel a great urge to move their legs. The unpleasant feeling in the legs only occurs during rest, particularly in the evening and at night.

Bell’s palsy (facial paralysis)

Bell’s palsy is a paralysis of the facial muscles usually on one side of the face due to nerve damage. Read on to find out more about causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus causes excessive urination and increased thirst. It is caused by a hormone that is missing or ineffective.

Neuralgic amyotrophy

Neuralgic amyotrophy causes severe pain in the arm and shoulder. It is due to an inflammation of certain nerves.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a condition where the brain or parts of it become overactive. Medication can prevent seizures and help patients sustain a good quality of life.

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. A third of all people are carriers, but only around 5% of them show symptoms of the disease.

Tetanus

Tetanus is a dangerous infectious disease. Even a small wound can be the portal of entry for the pathogen. People can protect themselves from it with vaccination.

Leprosy

Leprosy is a bacterial infectious disease that primarily occurs in South East Asia, South America, and Africa. Though leprosy is curable, there are still serious outcomes.

Vascular dementia

With vascular dementia, circulatory disorders in the brain lead to a reduction in mental abilities. It is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease.

Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

A transient ischemic attack often precedes a stroke. A TIA happens when part of the brain no longer gets enough blood supply. The symptoms are paralysis, visual impairment and slurred speech.

Botulism

Botulism is a type of poisoning caused by botulinum toxin, a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.