Woman holding her right shoulder with her left hand near her neck.

Muscles, bones and joints

When we talk about the musculoskeletal system, we are referring to our muscles, tendons, skeleton, and joints. Above all though, to the way these interact as smoothly as possible to enable us to jump, run, or work. Many musculoskeletal disorders can be attributed to wear and tear – particularly to a lack of exercise and too much sitting down. 


In people with osteoporosis, bone density declines more than normal. This increases their risk of breaking bones. Osteoporosis can be treated with lifestyle changes and medication.

Muscle strain

A muscle strain is one of the most common sport injuries, in which the muscle is overstretched through heavy strain.


Osteoarthritis occurs due to joint wear and is often associated with aging. Joints typically become stiff and painful. Targeted movement is a key therapeutic measure for osteoarthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis typically causes chronic inflammation of multiple joints. As a result, the joints can become deformed and stiff over time.

Back pain and lower back pain

Lower back pain is very common and is usually harmless. The most effective way to prevent back pain is regular exercise.

Shoulder pain

Shoulder pain is one of the most common joint problems, though its cause is not always easy to identify. People with shoulder pain should avoid arm movements that place too much strain on the joint.

Slipped (herniated) disc

A slipped disc can go unnoticed, but also cause severe discomfort. The pain usually goes away within six weeks.

Neck pain

Acute neck pain is very common and usually harmless. It is often caused by muscle tension, for example, as a result of spending long hours sitting at a computer or sleeping in certain positions.

Cruciate ligament rupture

Cruciate ligament ruptures usually occur in ball sports or skiing. Whether surgery has to be done on a rupture also depends on the stability of the knee and the age of the person affected.

Greenstick fractures

A greenstick fracture is when the bone cortex and the associated periosteum are damaged. These surround the solid bone, which remains intact. Such fractures only occur in children.

Baker’s cysts

A Baker’s cyst is a fluid-filled bulge that occurs at the back of the knee. It can cause pain and tightness but does not usually require treatment.

Heel spurs

A heel spur is the ossification of the tendon insertion point (enthesis) under the heel. Irritation of the enthesis can cause pain when walking. This can be treated in various ways.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

With ALS, nerve cells that control muscles deteriorate and die. This results in muscle loss, muscle stiffness and paralysis. Treatment seeks to relieve symptoms as effectively as possible.


Sarcomas are rare tumors. There are over 100 different subtypes of them. Sarcomas occur mainly in soft tissue, but also in bone.

Chronic pain

Chronic pain can affect the body and mind and impact daily life. Treatment aims to alleviate pain as far as possible and improve people’s quality of life.


Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder in which the brain’s ability to process pain is disrupted. The measures that help with fibromyalgia differ greatly from person to person.


Swelling and pain, around the knee or elbow for example, may be a sign of bursitis.


Tendinitis can occur because of heavy use of and excessive strain on a tendon. An irritated tendon requires a period of rest. 

Tenosynovitis (tendon sheath inflammation)

Tenosynovitis often occurs as a result of excessive strain on the hands, arms, or feet. If the affected area is rested, the symptoms normally disappear on their own.

Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the spinal canal. A common cause is wear and tear of the spine. It can be treated with non-drug and drug treatments.

Broken ankle

If the foot rolls too heavily, for example while playing sports, the upper ankle joint can break. This can affect one or several bones. A broken ankle usually heals easily.

Sprained ankle

Ankle sprains are common. Twisting overstretches the ligaments. What is more, small blood vessels rupture and the ankle swells up.

Tennis elbow

Tennis elbow is usually caused by repetitive movements or too much strain – for instance, during sports or when doing manual labor. Certain treatments can relieve the pain or speed up recovery.

Hip osteoarthritis (coxarthrosis)

Osteoarthritis of the hip often begins gradually. Pain when moving is one of the first signs. The main ways to treat this condition are exercise therapy and NSAID pain medication.

Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis refers to inflammation of the joints as a result of psoriasis. It causes stiff and painful joints.

Overactive parathyroid glands

Overactive parathyroid glands can cause bone degradation, kidney stones and cognitive impairments. This hormone disorder can often be cured with surgery.

Spinal fractures

Most spinal fractures occur as a result of bone atrophy (osteoporosis). Less often, they are caused by traffic accidents or sports injuries. Treatment depends on the severity of the injury.

Osteoarthritis of the knee (gonarthrosis)

Osteoarthritis of the knee typically begins with knee pain that initially only occurs with strain. For example, it is fostered by being overweight or severe strain such as frequent kneeling.

Torn muscle

A torn muscle involves the tearing of one or more fibers in a muscle. This usually occurs suddenly during a sports activity, such as playing football.

Restless Legs Syndrome

People with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) feel a great urge to move their legs. The unpleasant feeling in the legs only occurs during rest, particularly in the evening and at night.

Magnesium deficiency

Magnesium is important for bones, muscles, nerves and teeth. A balanced diet normally provides the body with sufficient quantities of magnesium. A magnesium deficiency is easily treated.


Rhabdomyolysis is a breakdown of muscle fibers that can be triggered by several causes. Severe cases need to be treated quickly.

Cauliflower ear

Bruising of the external ear may cause the cartilage to shrivel, fold in on itself and form fibrous tissue, leading to a deformity known as cauliflower ear. This can be prevented by rapid treatment.

Bell’s palsy (facial paralysis)

Bell’s palsy is a paralysis of the facial muscles usually on one side of the face due to nerve damage. Read on to find out more about causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

Diastasis recti

When the right and left abdominal muscles separate at the midline of the connective tissue, this is known as diastasis recti. This often occurs during pregnancy.

Compartment syndrome

With compartment syndrome, fluid becomes retained in the muscle tissue as a result of an injury, causing severe pain. Intervention prevents the tissue from being permanently damaged.

Broken collarbone

The collarbone (clavicle) is a strut that connects the shoulder blade and the breastbone (sternum). Broken collarbones are often caused by falls onto the shoulder. Surgery is sometimes necessary.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

With a carpal tunnel syndrome, the hand briefly goes to sleep, tingles and can be painful. One-sided strain on the wrist can be partly responsible.

Neuralgic amyotrophy

Neuralgic amyotrophy causes severe pain in the arm and shoulder. It is due to an inflammation of certain nerves.

Wrist injury

There are different types of wrist injury which vary a lot in terms of their symptoms and treatment.

Anterior knee pain (patellofemoral pain syndrome)

Anterior knee pain is one of the most common knee problems. It particularly affects people involved in sports.

Dislocated kneecap (patellar dislocation)

Patellar dislocation is when the kneecap pops out of its groove. This often occurs during sports.

Vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency is usually caused by too little sunlight and can affect the bone metabolism.

Hallux valgus

Hallux valgus is also known as a bunion and is one of the most common foot deformities. Treatment is only needed for the deformity if it causes problems.

Meniscus tear

Meniscus tears are among the most common knee injuries in sports, especially in ball sports like soccer. They occur when the knee is twisted while under heavy strain.

Frozen shoulder

The term “frozen shoulder” refers to gradual stiffness and pain in the shoulder that occurs for no apparent reason. Frozen shoulder generally clears up by itself.

Adolescent scoliosis

Adolescent scoliosis is a twisting of the spine. The cause is unclear. If the twisting remains, it has to be checked regularly.