Ein Mann sitzt in einem Behandlungszimmer vor einem Arzt und fasst sich mit beiden Händen an den Bauch. Der Arzt hält einen Auswertungsbogen in der Hand.

Digestion and metabolism

The digestion and metabolism have a common task: to provide and process energy and nutrients as well as to expel end products. Disorders and diseases of the digestive system and metabolism can have a wide range of effects. Some “only” reduce performance, but others can have more serious consequences.

Obesity (severe overweight)

Being obese, i.e. severely overweight can affect a person’s health, physical resilience and mobility. Losing even a small amount of weight can have a positive effect on health.

Overactive thyroid

The thyroid gland is classed as overactive when it produces more hormones than usual. This speeds up the metabolism and results in symptoms such as weight loss, perspiration or heart palpitations.

Type 2 diabetes

In type 2 diabetes, the blood sugar level is raised because the body’s cells fail to respond properly to the hormone insulin and don’t absorb enough sugar from the blood.

Lactose intolerance

Some people get digestive problems after drinking milk or eating dairy products. This may be due to a lactose intolerance: people affected can only tolerate small amounts of milk sugar.


Typical symptoms of acute gastritis are stomachache, feeling full, bloating, gas and heartburn. In most cases, gastritis is caused by a bacterial infection or the use of certain pain medication.

Crohn’s disease

Crohn’s disease is a chronic disease involving inflammation of sections of the digestive system. Read on to find out what causes it and which treatment options are available.


Anemia is a shortage of the red blood pigment hemoglobin. Possible causes include an iron deficiency and blood loss. Read on to find out more about causes, treatment, and prevention.

Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Symptom-free phases alternate with acute phases. It can cause severe pain, diarrhea and weight loss.

Heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Severe heartburn and burping are frequent symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) – also known as chronic acid reflux. Esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus) may also occur.

Diverticulitis (diverticular disease)

Diverticula are pouches in the intestinal mucosa. Stool can accumulate in them. Diverticula are often harmless, but can lead to medical conditions such as diverticulitis and intestinal diverticula.

Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not dangerous but can be painful and bothersome. Typical symptoms of a nervous bowel include abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea.

Gastrointestinal infection by noroviruses

Symptoms of an infection with noroviruses are vomiting and diarrhea. An outbreak of this illness must be halted quickly.

Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer is a malignant tumor condition of the gastric mucosa. In most patients, the tumor originates from the pancreatic ducts of the gastric mucosa.

Liver cancer

Liver cancer is often only detected at a late stage. As a result, it is often no longer curable. The treatment depends on the stage of the disease.

Pancreatic cancer

About 19,000 people in Germany develop pancreatic cancer each year. The tumor is often detected very late and so the chances of recovery are accordingly unfavorable.

Type 1 diabetes

With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces very little or no insulin. To supply the body with this essential hormone, people with the disease need daily injections of insulin.

Bowel cancer

Bowel cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in Germany. Each year, approximately 58,000 men and women are diagnosed with bowel cancer.

Gestational diabetes

Diabetes in pregnancy (gestational diabetes) increases the risk of certain rare birth complications. This risk can usually be reduced by a change in diet.


Diarrheal diseases occur often. They are often the result of a viral infection. Persistent diarrhea must be treated because it can lead to loss of fluid and sodium depletion.

Esophageal cancer

Esophageal cancer is a tumor in the esophageal mucosa. There are two common types: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

Non-specific physical disorders (functional somatic syndromes)

Many people experience persistent somatic symptoms with no clear medical cause. Functional somatic syndromes can be caused by stress and conflict.

Cancer of the gallbladder and bile ducts

With cancer in the gallbladder and bile ducts, symptoms often only appear when the disease is in an advanced stage. Such tumors are therefore usually only detected late.

Constipation in adults

Chronic constipation affects quality of life. The symptoms can often be improved by making changes to diet and lifestyle. Treatment is important to avoid potential complications.

Typhoid and paratyphoid

Typhoid is caused by bacteria in contaminated drinking water and food. It is recommended that people get a typhoid vaccine before travel to high-risk areas and take care with food and drink.

Constipation in children

Many children suffer from constipation. Stool softeners, toilet training and dietary changes are the key elements of a successful treatment plan.


Gout is a metabolic disorder that inflames the joints. Acute gout attacks often start at night or early in the morning, with a sudden, painful swelling of the joints.

Indigestion (functional dyspepsia)

Indigestion primarily causes stomach ache and an early feeling of satiety or fullness. There are many causes and treatment options.


Listeriosis is a bacterial infection caused by consuming contaminated food. Most cases are mild. However, some people may become seriously ill and can even die from listeriosis.

Cirrhosis of the liver

Cirrhosis of the liver is a process in which liver tissue is destroyed and transformed into connective tissue that has no function – up to the point where the liver is completely shrunken.

Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection

Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile bacteria can cause intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. The condition is usually triggered by taking antibiotics.

Acute appendicitis

Acute appendicitis is accompanied by severe abdominal pain and usually requires surgery. A possible complication is a ruptured appendix, which can be life-threatening.


Acidosis is a condition in which the body’s pH balance is disrupted. As a result, the pH value of the blood drops and becomes “acidic”. This acidity is usually due to an underlying illness.

Obstruction of the gallbladder

Gallbladder obstruction is usually accompanied by spasmodic pain in the upper abdomen. As a result, the bile ducts and gallbladder may become inflamed. The gallbladder is often surgically removed.

Vitamin B deficiency

Vitamin B is a group of eight vitamins, the most important of which are B1, B6, B9 (folate) and B12. Eating a balanced diet prevents a deficiency in these vitamins.

Duodenal ulcer

An ulcer in the duodenum usually occurs as a result of regular use of certain pain medication or infection with specific bacteria. These ulcers are normally easy to treat.

Hemorrhoids (piles)

Everyone has hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids only cause symptoms when they become enlarged. Hemorrhoidal disease is treated differently depending on the size of the hemorrhoids and the severity of the symptoms.

Gastric ulcer

A gastric ulcer usually occurs as a result of an infection with certain bacteria or due to long-term use of certain drugs for pain relief. Gastric ulcers are normally easy to treat.

Zinc deficiency

Zinc is a mineral that is important, for example, for growth in children and for the immune system. The body absorbs zinc from food. A balanced diet normally prevents a zinc deficiency.

Pinworms (enterobiasis)

Pinworm infection is one of the most common human worm conditions. It is usually harmless, and it typically becomes apparent due to itching around the anus.

Magnesium deficiency

Magnesium is important for bones, muscles, nerves and teeth. A balanced diet normally provides the body with sufficient quantities of magnesium. A magnesium deficiency is easily treated.

Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is a rare, congenital metabolic disorder that cannot be cured. Treatments can help improve patients’ quality of life and life expectancy.

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction (paralytic ileus)

If muscle paralysis occurs in the intestines, the movement of ingested food is obstructed. To avoid symptoms and complications, normal movement of food through the intestines needs to be restored.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is caused by changes to the liver. It does not impair liver function at first. However fatty liver disease can lead to harmful cirrhosis of the liver.

Acute pancreatitis

An acutely inflamed pancreas can cause a severe and sudden onset of pain. This is often triggered by gallstones.


Gallstones can trigger spasmodic epigastric pain. They develop from thickened bile fluid. Some people have gallstones without noticing them.

Alcoholic fatty liver disease

With alcoholic fatty liver disease, a change occurs in the liver. Liver function is not impaired at first. However, this condition can be a precursor of various life-threatening diseases.

Campylobacter infection

Campylobacter infection is an infectious disease with a high temperature and diarrhea. It is generally caused by eating contaminated food of animal origin.


Salmonellosis is an infection caused by bacteria in food. The main symptom is diarrhea. It may be accompanied by abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.

Food allergy

People with a food allergy usually react to even very small quantities. What are the typical symptoms? How is a food allergy treated?