Man lying on his back in a narrow, brightly lit tube for an MRI scan.


“Cancer” refers to diseases in which the body’s cells become malignant, meaning that they multiply uncontrollably, penetrate healthy tissue, and destroy it. They often form a tumor at the cancer site. Growths in other areas of the body are called metastases. This section enables you to find out more about the various types of cancer and the treatment options.

Thyroid cancer

A thyroid carcinoma is a rare form of cancer. Most forms of thyroid cancer are slow-growing and can usually be treated successfully by surgery.

Early detection of cancer: what examinations are there?

With screening, cancer or certain cancer precursors can be detected before they cause symptoms. The chances of healing thus often improve.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Around 57,000 people get lung cancer every year in Germany.

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men. Around 60,000 men get prostate cancer every year in Germany.

Breast cancer

In Germany, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, with around 70,000 women getting it every year. In many cases, breast cancer can be very effectively treated.

Cervical cancer

In the past, cervical cancer was a common type of cancer in women. Pap smear screening has made it less common. The HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer.

Melanoma skin cancer

Melanoma skin cancer is a commonly occurring malignant tumor of the skin. In Germany, about 23,000 people develop melanoma annually. Melanoma responds well to treatment if detected early.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia in adults

Acute lymphocytic leukemia is caused by uncontrolled reproduction of immature white blood cells in the body. This is a serious disease that requires immediate medical treatment.

Acute myeloid leukemia in adults

Acute myeloid leukemia is due to uncontrolled reproduction of immature blood cells in the bone marrow and body. It requires urgent treatment. Treatment in adults and children usually differs.

Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer is a malignant tumor condition of the gastric mucosa. In most patients, the tumor originates from the pancreatic ducts of the gastric mucosa.

Rare types of cancer

Rare types of cancer include around 200 different types of cancer that are not diagnosed very frequently. Find out more about how these are diagnosed and treated.

Liver cancer

Liver cancer is often only detected at a late stage. As a result, it is often no longer curable. The treatment depends on the stage of the disease.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an “indolent” (slow-growing) form of lymphoma. In most cases there are no symptoms at the outset and it therefore is often detected by chance.

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is rare. About 2,500 people get it every year. The majority of those affected can now be cured.

Pancreatic cancer

About 19,000 people in Germany develop pancreatic cancer each year. The tumor is often detected very late and so the chances of recovery are accordingly unfavorable.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

Modern therapies have revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This article provides more information about the condition and its treatment.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a collective term for about 30 different malignant lymphomas. The exact type of lymphoma determines its treatment.

Bowel cancer

Bowel cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in Germany. Each year, approximately 58,000 men and women are diagnosed with bowel cancer.

Bladder cancer

In Germany, around 30,000 people are newly diagnosed with bladder cancer every year. The treatment given and how the disease develops vary depending on how far the cancer has spread.

Brain tumors

There are different types of brain tumor. Learn more about the different types, their treatment options and risk factors known of to date.

Esophageal cancer

Esophageal cancer is a tumor in the esophageal mucosa. There are two common types: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumor found in men that develops in the testicles. There are two common types – the seminoma and the non-seminoma.

CUP syndrome (cancer of unknown primary)

CUP syndrome is an unusual form of cancer that is detected from secondary/metastatic tumors (metastases). However the primary tumor is not detected and remains unknown.

Cancer of the gallbladder and bile ducts

With cancer in the gallbladder and bile ducts, symptoms often only appear when the disease is in an advanced stage. Such tumors are therefore usually only detected late.

Laryngeal cancer

Significantly more men than women develop laryngeal cancer. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the main risk factors for the disease.

Vulvar cancer

Vulvar cancer is a tumor of the external female reproductive organs. It primarily affects older women but the prevalence among younger women is increasing.

Non-melanoma skin cancer

Non-melanoma skin cancer is very common in Germany. This type of skin cancer is normally localized and only rarely spreads to other parts of the body. As a result, it is rarely life-threatening.

Kidney cancer

Kidney cancer is one of the less common types of cancer. Around 15,000 people get kidney cancer every year in Germany.

Endometrial (womb) cancer

Endometrial (or womb) cancer is the most common cancer of the female reproductive organs with approximately 11,000 women being diagnosed each year in Germany.


Sarcomas are rare tumors. There are over 100 different subtypes of them. Sarcomas occur mainly in soft tissue, but also in bone.

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is often detected only at a late stage. The primary treatment is surgery, usually combined with chemotherapy. Targeted therapies are also possible.

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a cancer that originates from plasma cells in the bone marrow. With modern therapies, multiple myeloma can usually be effectively treated.

Oral and throat cancer

Oral and throat cancer are tumor diseases that typically originate in the mucous membrane of the oral cavity or throat.